U2U Blog Center

For developers and other creative minds

Welcome at the U2U Blog Center

U2U has built up the last 18 years a huge amount of expertise in the Microsoft .NET Framework. Expertise they have always shared in the community. Below you can find a list of the blogs maintained by U2U trainers.

Silverlight and the Windows Azure AppFabric Service Bus

This blog post will show you how to allow a Silverlight application to call a service over the Windows Azure AppFabric Service Bus. The problem you need to solve is that Silverlight will look for a “clientaccesspolicy.xml” at the root uri of the service. When I tried it myself I couldn’t find any “how to” on this topic so I decided to turn this into a blog post. If anyone else has this blogged, sorry I am such a bad internet searcher . So, you’ve just build a nice Silverlight application that uses some WCF service you’re hosting locally. You’ve done all the steps to make it work on your machine, including the “clientaccesspolicy.xml” to enable cross-domain communication. The only thing is that you want to keep hosting the service locally and/or move it to another machine without updating the Silverlight client. You’ve heard that the Windows Azure Service Bus allows you to do this more easily so you decide to use it. This is your current service configuration (notice the localhost address!). Code Snippet <service name="SilverlightAndAppFabric.TheService" >   <endpoint name="HELLO"             address="http://localhost:1234/rest"             behaviorConfiguration="REST"             binding="webHttpBinding"             bindingConfiguration="default"             contract="SilverlightAndAppFabric.IHello" /> </service> What you now need to do is to move it to the AppFabric Service bus. This is easy. Of course you need to get a subscription for Windows Azure and set up the AppFabric service bus… Look for somewhere else on this, there’s lots of this around. Then you change the address, binding and behavior like this: You need an endpoint behavior, because your service needs to authenticate to the service bus (so they can send you the bill): Code Snippet <endpointBehaviors>   <behavior name="REST">     <webHttp />     <transportClientEndpointBehavior>       <clientCredentials>         <sharedSecret           issuerName="owner"           issuerSecret="---your secret key here please---" />       </clientCredentials>     </transportClientEndpointBehavior>   </behavior> </endpointBehaviors> You (might) need a binding configuration to allow clients to access your service anonymously: Code Snippet <webHttpRelayBinding>   <binding name="default" >     <security relayClientAuthenticationType="None">     </security>   </binding> </webHttpRelayBinding>   And of course you need to change the endpoint to use the WebHttpRelayBinding: Code Snippet <endpoint name="HELLO"           address="https://u2utraining.servicebus.windows.net/rest"           behaviorConfiguration="REST"           binding="webHttpRelayBinding"           bindingConfiguration="default"           contract="SilverlightAndAppFabric.IHello" />   This should to the trick. Yes, when you try the REST service using Internet Explorer you get back the intended result. Now you update the address in your Silverlight application to use the service bus endpoint: This is the old call: Code Snippet wc.DownloadStringAsync(new Uri("http://localhost:1234/rest/hello"));   And you change it to: Code Snippet wc.DownloadStringAsync(new Uri("https://u2utraining.servicebus.windows.net/rest/hello"));   Please note the switch to https and the service bus address. You run your Silverlight client and it fails with some strange security error! The problem is that Silverlight will try to access the clientaccesspolicy.xml file from your new address. Since this is now the service bus this will not work. To solve it you simply add another REST endpoint that will return the clientaccesspolicy from this Uri. Start with the service contract: Code Snippet [ServiceContract] public interface IClientAccessPolicy {   [OperationContract]   [WebGet(UriTemplate = "clientaccesspolicy.xml")]   Message GetPolicyFile(); } Implement it: Code Snippet public Message GetPolicyFile() {   WebOperationContext.Current.OutgoingRequest.ContentType = "text/xml";     using (FileStream stream = File.Open("clientaccesspolicy.xml", FileMode.Open))   {     using (XmlReader xmlReader = XmlReader.Create(stream))     {       Message m = Message.CreateMessage(MessageVersion.None, "", xmlReader);       using (MessageBuffer buffer = m.CreateBufferedCopy(1000))       {         return buffer.CreateMessage();       }     }   } }   And make sure it returns the right policy. This is what gave me a lot of headache, so here it is: Code Snippet <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <access-policy>   <cross-domain-access>     <policy>       <allow-from http-request-headers="*">         <domain uri="http://*"/>         <domain uri="https://*"/>       </allow-from>       <grant-to>         <resource path="/" include-subpaths="true"/>       </grant-to>     </policy>   </cross-domain-access> </access-policy>   Pay special attention to the allow-from element. By default this will allow SOAP calls, not REST calls. For explanations read the documentation. You might want to edit it anyway. Now add a similar REST endpoint, making sure the clientaccesspolicy is at the root level: Code Snippet <endpoint name="CLIENTACCESSPOLICY"           address="https://u2utraining.servicebus.windows.net"           behaviorConfiguration="REST"           binding="webHttpRelayBinding"           bindingConfiguration="default"           contract="SilverlightAndAppFabric.IClientAccessPolicy" />   Done! A working example (you will have to change the client credentials to your own) can be downloaded from the U2U site here.

Invoking commands from events using the InvokeCommandAction behavior

MVVM is something for me. Databinding your data and behavior so you don’t have any code in your views is for me a nice separation of concepts. However some control’s cannot execute a command for certain events, for example when you select something in a listbox. Enters InvokeCommandAction, which is a behavior which allows you to invoke a command when a certain event occurs. You can find it beneath Blend’s 4 behaviors: You can attach this behavior to any control, and then select which command to execute when an event occurs. Let’s use a simple ListBox with strings example: <Window       xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"       xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"       xmlns:viewModels="clr-namespace:CommandsAndEvents"       xmlns:i="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/2010/interactivity" x:Class="CommandsAndEvents.Window1"       Title="Window1" Height="300" Width="300">  <Window.DataContext>    <viewModels:ListViewModel />  </Window.DataContext>    <Grid>    <ListBox x:Name="listBox" ItemsSource="{Binding Names}" >    </ListBox>  </Grid></Window> This window will show a list of names from the following ListViewModel: public class ListViewModel{  public ListViewModel()  {    Names = new ObservableCollection<string> { "Jan", "Piet", "Joris", "Corneel" };    SelectionChangedCommand =     new RelayCommand("Test", (item) => ShowSelected((string)item)); // string is the type of the selected item  }  public ObservableCollection<string> Names { get; set; }   public ICommand SelectionChangedCommand { get; set; }   private void ShowSelected(string item)  {    MessageBox.Show(item);  }} Now, if I’d like the ListBox to call the SelectionChangedCommand I simply add the following behavior: <ListBox x:Name="listBox" ItemsSource="{Binding Names}" >   <i:Interaction.Triggers>     <i:EventTrigger EventName="SelectionChanged">       <i:InvokeCommandAction Command="{Binding SelectionChangedCommand}"                               CommandParameter="{Binding SelectedItem, ElementName=listBox}"/>     </i:EventTrigger>   </i:Interaction.Triggers> </ListBox>   Notice that this allows for arguments to be passed to the command, which then allows you access to any property on the control!

ObservableCollection<T> now part of .NET 4 (No need to reference WPF)

ObservableCollection<T> is a generic collection added as part of WPF and Silverlight. WinForms has BindingList<T>. So writing code that targets both WinForms and WPF would mean using BindingList<T> (the common thing) and writing code targetting WPF and Silverlight would mean ObservableCollection<T>. So there would be no way to write code that targets all three platforms. Luckily now (in .NET 4) we can use ObservableCollection<T> anywhere because Microsoft made it part of System.dll. Nice! Two others were also moved here: ReadOnlyObservableCollection<T> and INotifyCollectionChanged. To double check if I could use these collections outside WPF projects I created a simple console application using them: 1: class Program 2: { 3: static void Main(string[] args) 4: { 5: ObservableCollection<string> noWpf = new ObservableCollection<string> { "Hello", "World" }; 6: INotifyCollectionChanged watchCollection = noWpf as INotifyCollectionChanged; 7:  8: 9:  10: if (watchCollection != null) 11: { 12: watchCollection.CollectionChanged += (sender, e) => { Console.WriteLine("Collection action = {0}", e.Action); }; 13: } 14:  15: noWpf.Add("Love it!"); 16: } 17: } Compiles. Runs. Could I use it in WinForms? So I created a simple WinForms application like this: 1: public partial class Form1 : Form 2: { 3: ObservableCollection<string> noWpf; 4:  5: public Form1() 6: { 7: InitializeComponent(); 8:  9: noWpf = new ObservableCollection<string> { "Hello", "World" }; 10: var bs = new BindingSource() { DataSource = noWpf }; 11: bs.ListChanged += (sender, e) => { MessageBox.Show(e.ListChangedType.ToString()); }; 12: listBox1.DataSource = bs; 13: } 14:  15: private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) 16: { 17: noWpf.Add("Test"); 18: } 19: } But when I click the button, which adds a new element to the observable collection, the listbox doesn’t update. It looks like winforms databinding doesn’t support ObservableCollection…

Using Model-View-ViewModel with WPF

In this blog post I want to show my way of implementing the Model-View-ViewModel pattern for WPF. I hope it serves as a simple example for those of you who want to start using it. The advantage of MVVM is that the view, which is a WPF thing, doesn’t contain any code. Instead the view uses a lot of data binding to bind itself to the data, but also to the functionality through commands. Because the model itself should not be dependent on any specific technology, we use a viewmodel, which is an adapter, to add the model things like extra data and commands. So again, the view doesn’t contain any code, the viewmodel does. This means that it is possible to download the view from a database, so you can vary the view per company/user, or make it very easy to update the view. Second advantage is that is makes it very easy to test your functionality using unit tests, which I think is the most important advantage… Use INotifyPropertyChanged So let’s get started. First of all you should understand INotifyPropertyChanged. To better understand the importance of INotifyPropertyChanged, you should understand how databinding works, for example in WPF. In WPF any control can data bind any of its dependency properties to any data through its data binding mechanism. The control doesn’t need to know about the data object (actually it can’t know the type of the data object because the control is usually written several years before the data object :) Dependency properties have this special feature, namely that you can register for the changed event of the dependency property. So when someone changes the control’s property, the databinding object will be notified and it can then update the data object’s property. INotifyPropertyChanged does the same thing. A databinding object from WPF knows about this interface and will query the data object for it. When it has this interface, the databinding object registers itself for any changed events, and updates the control’s property. This way you get two-way data binding, when one side changes, the other side gets updated as well. Likewise should you use ObservableCollection<T> for any collections, so these can notify any controls that the list has changed. Implementing INotifyPropertyChanged is simple. Start by defining a base class that implements the interface: 1: public class Entity : INotifyPropertyChanged 2: { 3: public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged; 4:  5: public virtual void RaisePropertyChanged(string propName) 6: { 7: if (PropertyChanged != null) 8: PropertyChanged(this, new PropertyChangedEventArgs(propName)); 9: } 10: } INotifyPropertyChanged requires you to implement the PropertyChanged event, and trigger it each time a property changes. This base class does it all… Then any object requiring it can derive from this base class; both model and viewmodel should derive and raise the PropertyChanged event when they change. In this example I’m going to use a Person class: 1: public class Person : Entity 2: { 3: public class Properties 4: { 5: public const string Name = "Name"; 6: public const string Age = "Age"; 7: } 8:  9: private string name; 10:  11: public string Name 12: { 13: get { return name; } 14: set 15: { 16: if (name != value) 17: { 18: name = value; 19: RaisePropertyChanged(Person.Properties.Name); 20: } 21: } 22: } 23:  24: private int age; 25:  26: public int Age { 27: get { return age; } 28: set { 29: if (age != value) { 30: age = value; 31: RaisePropertyChanged(Person.Properties.Age); 32: } 33: } 34: } 35: } There has been much discussion going on on how to implement the setter of your property, mainly in how to pass the property name to the event. I like to use a nested “Properties” class that contains a const string for each property name. This way I find it easy to refactor my property since there are no more strings. Other people like to use reflection but I hate the runtime overhead this brings. This technique also makes is easier to register for PropertyChanged events from other objects. If each class has a nested Properties class, you can easily code find the name of each property using intelli-sense. The Model. Your model should be exactly that. The representation of your business data, such as lists of things. In my example the model is very simple; it contains a list of Person objects. In real life these would the several lists of interrelated objects, such as products, customers, their orders, etc… The model can also have methods implementing business functionality. Any changes to the model should trigger events notifying any controls of changes… 1: public class PeopleModel /* : Entity */ 2: { 3: private ObservableCollection<Person> people 4: = new ObservableCollection<Person>() 5: { // Let's add some data to make it easier to verify data binding in view 6: new Person { Name = "Wesley", Age = 31 }, 7: new Person { Name = "Dimitri", Age = 28 }, 8: new Person { Name = "Gert", Age = 24 }, 9: new Person { Name = "Peter", Age = 24 } 10: }; 11:  12: public ObservableCollection<Person> People 13: { 14: get { return people; } 15: } 16:  17: /* and many more other collections and objects */ 18: } Please note that normally the model would also implement INotifyPropertyChanged, but because this model doesn’t need it, I haven’t gone to the trouble… Uncommenting the Entity base class will not change any functionality in this example so if you want, go right ahead! The ViewModel For me the ViewModel is an adapter, that only exposes stuff so the view can only access what is necessary. For example the view will contain a list of people, will have a current selected person and two fields so you can create a new person. The ViewModel will use data binding to couple itself to the view, but doesn’t know any specific things about the controls used. It does however implement INotifyPropertyChanged so changes to the ViewModel will update the view: 1: public class PersonVM : Entity 2: { 3: private PeopleModel model; 4:  5: public PersonVM(PeopleModel m) { model = m; } 6:  7: public ObservableCollection<Person> People 8: { 9: get { return model.People; } 10: } 11:  12: private string name; 13: public string Name 14: { 15: get { return name; } 16: set 17: { 18: if (name != value) 19: { name = value; RaisePropertyChanged("Name"); } 20: } 21: } 22:  23: private int age; 24: public int Age 25: { 26: get { return age; } 27: set 28: { 29: if (age != value) 30: { age = value; RaisePropertyChanged("Age"); } 31: } 32: } 33: 34: private Person current; 35:  36: public Person Current 37: { 38: get { return current; } 39: set 40: { 41: if (current != value) 42: { 43: current = value; 44: RaisePropertyChanged("Current"); 45: } 46: } 47: } 48:  49: public void DeleteCurrentPerson() 50: { 51: model.People.Remove(Current); 52: Current = model.People[0]; 53: } 54:  55: public ICommand DeleteCommand 56: { 57: get { return new RelayCommand(DeleteCurrentPerson); } 58: } 59:  60: public ICommand AddCommand 61: { 62: get { return new RelayCommand(AddPerson); } 63: } 64:  65: public void AddPerson() 66: { 67: Person newPerson = new Person { Name = this.Name, Age = this.Age }; 68: model.People.Add(newPerson); 69: Current = newPerson; 70: } 71: } So this ViewModel has a People property, which is the list we’re going to work with, a Current property to allow us to access the currently selected person (we’ll databind the selected item property of the list control to it), and a Name and Age property for entering new people. These properties will be data bound to two text boxes, so the user can enter stuff in the text boxes, but the command (which is on the viewmodel level) can access these properties, again not knowing which controls are being used. NOTE: the RaisePropertyChanged is not implemented here without the PersonVM.Properties.Property technique. That is because for this demo I also created a code snippet to make it easier to type in properties that implement INotifyPropertyChanged. It’s very easy to create your own, I’ve actually uploaded a little video on how to do this. The View If you’d ask me what is the best thing in WPF, then I would say DataTemplate! Our UI is going to databind to the ViewModel and we’re going to associate the View using a DataTemplate. WPF will automatically select our view when it databinds to our ViewModel. You can do this as follows: 1: <Window x:Class="ModelViewViewModelLab.Window1" 2: xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation" 3: xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml" 4: xmlns:viewModels="clr-namespace:ModelViewViewModelLab.ViewModels" 5: xmlns:views="clr-namespace:ModelViewViewModelLab.Views" 6: Title="Window1" Height="300" Width="300"> 7: <Window.Resources> 8: <!-- voor elk soort van viewmodel mappen we dit naar een view --> 9: <DataTemplate DataType="{x:Type viewModels:PersonVM }"> 10: <views:PersonView /> 11: </DataTemplate> 12: </Window.Resources> 13: <Grid> 14: <ContentControl Content="{Binding}" /> 15: </Grid> 16: </Window> This way the view will be created with its DataContext set to the view model, so we can use DataContext relative data binding: 1: <UserControl x:Class="ModelViewViewModelLab.Views.PersonView" 2: xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation" 3: xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml" 4: xmlns:model="clr-namespace:ModelViewViewModelLab.Models" 5: Height="300" Width="300"> 6: <UserControl.Resources> 7: <DataTemplate DataType="{x:Type model:Person}"> 8: <StackPanel Orientation="Vertical"> 9: <StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal"> 10: <TextBox Text="{Binding Name}" /> 11: <TextBlock Text=" - " /> 12: <TextBox Text="{Binding Age}" /> 13: </StackPanel> 14: <ProgressBar Width="100" Height="16" Value="{Binding Age}" /> 15: </StackPanel> 16: </DataTemplate> 17: </UserControl.Resources> 18: <Grid> 19: <Grid.ColumnDefinitions> 20: <ColumnDefinition /> 21: <ColumnDefinition /> 22: </Grid.ColumnDefinitions> 23: <!-- People listbox --> 24: <ListBox ItemsSource="{Binding People}" 25: Name="theList" 26: SelectedItem="{Binding Current}" /> 27: <!-- Command part --> 28: <StackPanel Orientation="Vertical" Grid.Column="1"> 29: <ContentControl Content="{Binding Current}" /> 30: <!-- New person --> 31: <TextBox Text="{Binding Name}" /> 32: <TextBox Text="{Binding Age}" /> 33: <Button Content="Add" Command="{Binding AddCommand, Mode=OneWay}" /> 34: <Button Content="Delete" Command="{Binding DeleteCommand, Mode=OneWay}"/> 35: </StackPanel> 36: </Grid> 37: </UserControl> Note the buttons in the view; these are data bound to the RelayCommand instances on the view model. Clicking these will execute the associated command. 1: public class RelayCommand : ICommand 2: { 3: Action action; 4:  5: public RelayCommand(Action execute) 6: { 7: action = execute; 8: } 9:  10: public bool CanExecute(object parameter) 11: { 12: return true; 13: } 14:  15: public event EventHandler CanExecuteChanged; 16:  17: public void Execute(object parameter) 18: { 19: action(); 20: } 21: } The Commands RelayCommand is a (too) simple implementation of the command pattern in WPF, but it allows us to easily execute a method on the model or viewModel. Our viewModel uses it to expose two commands: add and delete: 1: public ICommand DeleteCommand 2: { 3: get { return new RelayCommand(DeleteCurrentPerson); } 4: } 5:  6: public ICommand AddCommand 7: { 8: get { return new RelayCommand(AddPerson); } 9: } Thanks to delegates this is easy! The commands each execute a method on the viewModel: 1: public void AddPerson() 2: { 3: Person newPerson = new Person { Name = this.Name, Age = this.Age }; 4: model.People.Add(newPerson); 5: Current = newPerson; 6: } AddPerson requires a couple of inputs, the name and age of the new person to add; its gets these from the Name and Age properties on the ViewModel. How did these get filled in? The view has a Textbox data bound to each! 1: public void DeleteCurrentPerson() 2: { 3: model.People.Remove(Current); 4: Current = model.People[0]; 5: } DeleteCurrentPerson will remove the currently selected person from the list of people. Again the Current property is data bound to the selectedItem property of the listbox, so when you select something from the listbox, the current property will be automatically updated. After deleting the current person, we select the first person from the list. Carefull, this will give a nice bug when the last person is removed from the list, but fixing this should be easy… So, MVVM. That’s it. Of course you could add a lot using other patterns, but that is for another time…

Using the WPF Visualizer in Visual Studio 2010

Visual Studio 2010 now has a cool little feature I want to show you. When you’re debugging WPF applications, you sometimes need to see the controls and their hierarchy. Now with VS2010 this is easy. Simply use the magnifying class (the visualizer feature) and select the WPF Tree Visualizer:   This will show you all the controls with their properties like this:   In the left pane you get the tree view of controls with a rendering of the selected control, at the right side you get all properties of the control.

Silverlight deployment: deploying to multiple environments

Today I got an interesting question, namely they were using services in their silverlight application, but each time they needed to deploy they unzipped the .xap file to change the ServiceReferences.ClientConfig configuration to use their production server. of course this meant re-zipping back to .xap, and possible mistakes during deployment. So on several occasions a QA .xap was deployed in production. So how can you avoid this? Well, I think the best way is to move the changing configuration to outside the .xap file. For example we can deploy a simple file to the web server where the silverlight application is deployed and add the server address in it: <servers>   <server type="movieServer"           uri="http://PRODUCTION_SERVER/MovieService.svc"   /> </servers>   For each deployment environment you would keep a separate file, making sure that future deployments cannot overwrite it by accident (for example by setting ACL’s on the file). Next, when the silverlight application starts we download this file from the server using the WebClient class: Dim WithEvents wc As New WebClient   Private Sub GetTheServers()   wc.DownloadStringAsync(New Uri("servers.xml", UriKind.Relative)) End Sub   Once we receive the DownloadStringCompleted event we parse the server’s address out of the received xml: Dim movieServerAddress As String Private Sub wc_DownloadStringCompleted(ByVal sender As Object,              ByVal e As System.Net.DownloadStringCompletedEventArgs)              Handles wc.DownloadStringCompleted   Dim doc = XDocument.Parse(e.Result)   Dim movieServerQuery = From server In doc...<server> _                          Where server.@type = "movieServer" _                          Select server.@uri     movieServerAddress = movieServerQuery.Single() End Sub   When we need to call the service (for example a WCF service) we simply use the stored movieServerAddress: Private Sub LoadTheMovies(ByVal sender As System.Object,                           ByVal e As System.Windows.RoutedEventArgs)   proxy = New MovieServiceReference.MovieServiceClient( _             New BasicHttpBinding(),              New EndpointAddress(movieServerAddress))   proxy.GetListOfMoviesAsync() End Sub   You could avoid downloading the servers.xml file multiple times by storing it in Isolated storage. So the first time isolated storage wouldn’t have this information yet, so you would call GetTheServers. Then you could parse its contents and store the information in isolated storage. Next time you would find it in isolated storage, saving the round-trip to download it…